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英語句子成分和英語句子結構講解

時間:2012-12-29 17:44 來源:建通教育中考資訊網 編輯:井林英 點擊: 次
英語句子成分和英語句子結構講解
1. 主語(subject): 句子說明的人或事物。
The sun rises in the east.          (名詞)    He likes dancing.  (代詞)
Twenty years is a short time in history. (數詞)     Seeing is believing. (動名詞)      
To see is to believe.           (不定式)     What he needs is a book. (主語從句)
It is very clear that the elephant is round and tall like a tree. 
(It形式主語,主語從句是真正主語)
2. 謂語(predicate): 說明主語的動作、狀態和特征。
We study English.                       He is asleep.    
3. 表語(predicative): 系動詞之后的成分,表示主語的性質、狀態和特征。
He is a teacher.     (名詞)       Seventy-four! You don’t look it. (代詞)
Five and five is ten. (數詞)        He is asleep.               (形容詞) 
His father is in.     (副詞)       The picture is on the wall.    ( 介詞短語)
My watch is gone / missing / lost.                  (形容詞化的分詞)
To wear a flower is to say “I’m poor, I can’t buy a ring. (不定式)
The question is whether they will come.              (表語從句)
(常見的系動詞有: be, sound(聽起來), look(看起來)feel(摸起來)smell(聞起來), taste(嘗、吃起來), remain(保持,仍是)  feel(感覺) ...
It sounds a good idea.              The sound sounds strange.
Her voice sounds sweet.            Tom looks thin.
The food smells delicious.          The food tastes good.
The door remains open.            Now I feel tired.
4. 賓語:1)動作的承受者-----動賓
I like China. (名詞)               He hates you. (代詞)
How many do you need? We need two. (數詞)
We should help the old and the poor.     I enjoy working with you.  (動名詞)
I hope to see you again.  (不定式)   Did you write down what he said? (賓語從句)
    2) 介詞后的名詞、代詞和動名詞-----介賓
Are you afraid of the snake?           Under the snow, there are many rocks.
    3) 雙賓語-----間賓(指人)和直賓(指物)
He gave me a book yesterday.         Give the poor man some money.
5. 賓補:對賓語的補充,全稱為賓語補足語。
We elected him monitor.   (名詞) We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. (名)
We will make them happy. (形容詞)     We found nobody in.  ( 副詞 )
Please make yourself at home. 介詞短語) Don’t let him do that. (省to不定式)
His father advised him to teach the lazy boy a lesson. (帶to不定式)
Don’t keep the lights burning. (現在分詞) I’ll have my bike repaired. (過去分詞) 
6. 定語:修飾或限制名詞或代詞的詞、詞組或句子。
Ai Yanling is a chemistry teacher.(名詞)  He is our friend. (代詞)
We belong to the third world.   (數詞) 
He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson.(形容詞)
The man over there is my old friend.(副詞) 
The woman with a baby in her arms is my sister. (介詞)
The boys playing football are in Class 2.   (現在分詞)
The trees planted last year are growing well now. (過去分詞)   
I have an idea to do it well. (不定式)
You should do everything that I do.    (定語從句)
7. 狀語:用來修飾v., adj., adv., or 句子。
表示時間、地點、原因、目的、結果、程度、條件、方式和讓步。  
(以下例句按上述順序排列)
數據統計中??!
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